Updated: Oct 10, 2020
STEM CELL TREATMENT FOR ANTI-AGING
Aging is related to changes in dynamic social, environmental, physiological, behavioral, psychological, and biological processes. Some age-related changes are insignificant, for example graying hair. Others consequence in decline function of the senses and activities of daily life and multiplied susceptibility to and frequency of disease, disability, or frailty. In fact, increasing age is the vital risk factor for a number of chronic and degenerative diseases in humans. (1)
Nobody knows how and why people change as they get older. Some hypotheses claim that aging is trigger by injuries from ultraviolet light in a long period, wear and tear on the body, or a side effect of metabolism. Other hypotheses view aging as a prearranged process controlled by genes. No single theory can explain all the changes of aging. Aging is a complex process that diverges as to how it influences in each individual and even different organs tissue. Most scientists who study aging, feel that aging comes from the interaction of many long-term influences. These influences include heredity, diet, environment, exercise, past illness, leisure, culture, and many other influencers. Far from the changes of adolescence, which are expected to within a few years, each person ages at a different rate. Some systems start aging as early as age 30. Other aging processes are not common until much later in life. 
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR ASSOCIATED WITH AGING
Examples of Age-related Changes in Function and Organ Structure and Possible Related Agents, Life-styles or Medical condition (5) The environmental cause of aging by organ Hearing loss: loud noise, ears toxicity medication Nervous system: Expose to the toxin which affects nerve such as lead, mercury, food additive, pesticide Skin: cigarette smoking, ultraviolet light, cigarette smoking
Cataract: ultraviolet light Respiratory system: Cigarette smoking
The fundamental mechanisms of aging the rate of buildup of stress-induced random molecular damage are conditional on the capacity of the antioxidant system and the effectiveness of repair systems. As these systems are not 100% effective, cells always carry some unrepaired damage that conducts to activation of a stress response and increasing mechanisms to remove the damage or to prevent the cell break up. Though, these responses also become less effective with age so that damaged element buildup leading to cellular defects, which gives rise to tissue dysfunction and aging. (3)
AGING CHANGE IN DIFFERENT ORGAN SYSTEM
Cells are the basic building blocks of tissues and organs. All cells facing changes with aging. They become bigger and are decrease their ability to divide and multiply. Among other changes, there is an intensifying in pigments and fatty components inside the cell (lipids). Many cells lose their capability to function, or they start to function abnormally.
•Skin: freckle, skin tag, dry and sensitive skin, Hair loss Photoaging, skin laxity, wrinkle •Obesity: easier to gain weight, the proportion of the body that is made up of fat increases on average from 14 percent to 30 percent between the ages of 25 and 75.
•Sexual health: menopause, erectile dysfunction, Dry Vagina, loss of sexual appetite •Endocrine system: Diabetic Mellitus type 2
•Kidney: Chronic kidney disease (4)
•Respiratory system: COPD •Cancer
•cardiovascular system: High blood pressure, Ischemic heart disease, Valvular heart disease •bones, joints, and muscles: Bone shrink, Osteoporosis, Muscle loss, Osteoarthritis
•digestive system: Gall stone, Colon cancer, constipation, Indigestion, •Urinary tract: Prostate gland Enlargement, CA prostate, Incontinence, •Brain and nervous system: Depression, Parkinson, Stroke, Dementia, Alzheimer
•Eyes and ears: visual acuity defect, Macular degeneration, Cataract, Sensory hearing loss •Teeth: increase the chance of teeth and gum decay and infection
AGEING STEM CELL AND DEGENERATIVE DISEASE
There is increasing proof that the aging process can have negative effects on stem cells. As stem cells, age, their renewal capability decreases, and their ability to differentiate into the various cell types is changed. Correspondingly, it is proposed that aging-induced deterioration of stem cell functions play a vital role in the pathophysiology of the varied aging-associated disorders. Adult stem cells, as known as somatic stem cells, are found through our body in every organ and tissue after development, and function as self-renewing cell pools to refill dying cells and repair damaged tissues throughout our life. However, adult stem cells seem to age with the person. As stem cells age, their functional capability also decreases. Specifically, this regenerative power seems to decline with age, as injuries in older individuals recover more slowly than in childhood. For instance, healing of a breaking bone takes a much longer time in the elderly than in young individuals. There is a considerable amount of proof showing that the deterioration of adult stem cells in the adult can become a key role in the initiation of several diseases in aging. From the various developments in stem cell research, it is transparent that we grow old partly as our stem cells grow old with us. The functions of aged stem cells become undermine as the result of intracellular cell pathways and surrounding environmental changes. With the sharp rise in aging-related diseases, the need for efficient regenerative medicine methods for the aged is more crucial than ever. (6)
STEM CELLS FOR ANTI-AGING AND REJUVENATION
As stem cells age, their renewal capability decreases, and their potentiality to change into various cell types is the exhaust. It is believed that stem cell failure causing a decline in health during the aging process. Stem cell treatment is a potential method to induce and differentiate stem cells via cell replacement therapy allow an effective approach for the treatment of degenerative age-related diseases. It is believed that the regenerative ability of these cells is due to their high dividing ability and differentiation capabilities, essential substance production, and immune privilege.
Somatic stem cell resident varies according to the regenerative requires of the host tissue. In high turnover tissue, such as the hematopoietic or gut system, most stem cells or are active throughout our life. In organs deficient of stem cells, stem cell transplantation to replace cells is a potential therapeutic method for functional recovery. This means that stem cells can utilize for cell replacement therapy as an intervention target at reducing the effects of aging. (7)
STEM CELL HOMECOMING
Mesenchymal stem cells are another population of cells with treatment potential. Mesenchymal stem cells are normally defined as multipotent cells that have the potential of self- renewal and can also generate a number of unique cell types that result in connective tissue, cartilage, and bone. Scientists have proof that these cells live in many parts of the body and are efficient in contributing to the repair of a variety of damaged tissues and organs. Although injection of local transplantation proves therapeutically beneficial, the potential to target these cells to particular tissues with high effectiveness will be a key role in developing new therapeutic methods.
Inflamed or damaged tissues call for repairing by sending out signals, some of which act as cues for mesenchymal stem cells and call them to the damaged tissue, and many of these signals have been discovered, including stromal-derived factor. Though stromal-derived, factors can be effective in calling mesenchymal stem cells, under normal conditions it stays in an inert state by enzymes in the body. (8) After moving into injured tissues, mesenchymal stem cells will perform functions and aid wound healing of diseases and damage tissue.
STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION FOR ANTI-AGING,
HOW DOES IT WORK?
Stem cells are identified by their multiple-efficacy and self-renewal abilities, resulting in the parent cells or mature cells that can repair tissue and keep the characteristics of stem cells to guarantee a long-term continuation of the stem cell population. Stem cells play an important role in organ generation and maintaining homeostasis throughout life, own the ability to migrate long distances and target disease or damaged conditions, exhibit therapeutic genes, and respond to signal that redirect their differentiation into defective cell type. This means that stem cells can utilize for cell replacement as a treatment method aimed at decreasing the effects of aging. Stem cells mechanism of action such as: •Secrete essential substance: Although there are many ways through which stem cells may decrease injury, the main mechanism which is assessed is through essential substance secretion functions. •Immune Regulatory: In view of the inflammatory nature of most injuries, studies have shown that the important role of mesenchymal stem cells in resolving tissue damage counting on toning down inflammation in particular sites of injury. •Factor stimulating new blood vessel: New blood vessels generate provided by mesenchymal stem cells can appraise one more supportive effect, since the regenerate of blood supply is fundamental for the repair of damaged tissues. •Anti-oxidative factors: Some studies have proposed that mesenchymal stem cells also own anti-oxidative features. Mesenchymal stem cells have been observed to create many anti-oxidative substances such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), HGF, IGF, PDGF, and IL-6. Mesenchymal stem cells respectively reduce oxidative damage in culture when fibroblast cells are exposed to oxidative damage-causing environments. (9) •Differentiation: Mesenchymal Stem Cells have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types such as bone, cartilage nerve cell, fat cell. •Fusion: Specific adult stem cells can be used for clinical treatment by launching nuclei or functional genes in aged or degenerating cells. A fusion of stem cells with degenerate cells play an important role in the regeneration of damaged tissue and organ. It’s known that inflammation induces stem cells moving to sites of tissue injury. Moreover, inflammation also enhances the frequency of stem cell fusion.
THE ULTIMATE REJUVENATION.
•Immune System Rejuvenation: This also applies to blood cell systems, in which aging is related to an increased chance of blood cell cancer and other diseases. Blood cells are in charge of ongoing maintenance and immune protection of all cell types. Research on the process of blood cell genesis has shown that aging decreases immune responses and blood components, as a consequence an increase in the chance of white blood cell diseases, including cancer. Rejuvenation intends to reverse aging more than simply delay it. Rejuvenation can be reached through the reconstitution of self-blood stem cells or the transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from peripheral blood, bone marrow, or umbilical cord blood.
• Cardiac Rejuvenation: Eventually, been recognized that heart muscle cells can be regenerated after birth. Patients with severe heart disease caused by the plaque build-up inside cardiac arteries have decreased in the functionality of circulating stem cells to repair tissue damage. This has led a number of scientific researchers to use stem cell therapy as a means to regenerate heart tissue as known as heart rejuvenation. Researchers have also examined cell therapies regarding the administration of healthy, young stem cells to a diseased heart to give protection from the aging of cardiac cells and enhance cardiac repair.
•Nerve System Rejuvenation: Age-induced decrease in the number of nerve cells and neural stem cells compromise nerve cell regeneration. Aging of the central nervous system is related to the progressive loss of nervous system function, which can be aggravated by neurodegenerative diseases, such as dementia, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Most previous researches have shown that cell therapy might be able to repair lost cells and enhance neuronal regeneration, protect nerve cell survival as well as play a key role in defeat permanent sensory loss or paralysis and restoring neurological function. The possible mechanisms may as the following: o inhibit cell death oSecrete important substance
o Immune modulate the function
o Promotion of nerve cell integration.
o Promote new blood vessel generation
o Generate nerve cell o Decrease inflammation
•Bone and Joint Rejuvenation: Age-related changes in bone and joint include the destructive processes of cartilage. As the cartilage cells decrease, joint cartilage becomes increasingly thin, as well as dehydrated. It proofs that the bioactive substance secreted by mesenchymal stem cells can have beneficial effects in modulating the microenvironment of damaged tissue, as a result, better conditions for tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells produce a range of substances, which aid in a variety of biological functions, including immune regulation, new blood vessel generates, anti-cell death, anti-oxidation, cell homing, and the promotion of cell differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells have been used in cell therapy to enhance the repair of cartilage, bone, or muscle. Illuminating the mechanism that promotes the aging of bone and joint can lead to treatments target at slowing aging-associated changes or enhancing the regeneration of joint cartilage.
Reference 1.US Department of Human and Health Service, National Institute on aging “Understand the dynamic of aging process “ 2.US National library of medicine, Medline Plus “Ageing Change in organ tissue and cellar” 3.Mark T. Mc Auley, Modelling the molecular mechanisms of aging, Bioscience Reports (2017) 4.Mayo Clinic “Healthy aging “ https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/healthy- aging/in-depth/aging/art-20046070 5.National Research Council (US) Committee on Chemical Toxicology and Aging. Washington (DC)” Environmental Effects on Age-Associated Diseases and Changes in Organ Function” National Academies Press (US); 1987. 6.Abu Shufian Ishtiaq Ahmed,” Effect of aging on stem cells”, World J Exp Med. 2017 Feb 20 7.Da-Chuan Yeh, Tzu-Min Chan” Therapeutics of Stem Cell Treatment in Anti-Aging and Rejuvenation“Stem Cell Discovery, 8, 13-31. 8.Harvard stem cell institute, Harvard University,” Stem cells going home” 9.Patricia Semedo, Marina Burgos-Silva, “How do mesenchymal stem cells repair “ open access peer review submit March 29 ,2011