Updated: Oct 8, 2020
STEM CELLS TREATMENT IN AESTHETIC DERMATOLOGY (2)
After many trial projects in the past 10 years of the 20th century, stem cells were around two decades ago introduced as a novel and promising treatment for many varieties of diseases. This expectation related to the special characteristic of stem cells and their regenerative ability enhance in direct proportion to the important need in many medical fields. Stem cells are right now extensively exploring applications in a number of medical fields including the skin. Mesenchymal stem cells seem to be a perfect source for tissue engineering therapy due to less ethical concerns, high inaccessibility, and an increasing number of methods for extraction and expansion of such cell types. Mesenchymal stem cells have anti-aging properties by a decrease of melanin production after ultraviolet exposure as a result skin becomes whiter. An anti-aging effect of stem cells also may result from decrease cellular sugar metabolism, antioxidation, and nutrient provider effect, which in result leads to restoration and rejuvenation of the functional capacity of the skin.
FACIAL AGING CHRONICLE
To rejuvenate a youthful facial feature, understanding of facial anatomical changes over time is essential. Anatomical changes to the facial skeletal framework, soft tissue, ligaments, fat compartments, and skin all impact on facial aging in different degrees depending on the intrinsic and extrinsic modifying factors. Here are the chronicle effects of aging on our faces. (1)
FACIAL SKELETON FRAMEWORK CHANGES FROM AGING
Facial skeletal change with time, create dramatic shifting of the underneath soft tissue and supportive ligaments of the face, and when combined with baby fat redisposition and volume loss, these give a reasonable explanation behind the complex theory of facial aging. Changes to the bony structure with time lead to noticeable facial change and synchronize with soft-tissue laxity and atrophy, generate the appearance of facial aging.
FACIAL FAT AND SOFT TISSUE COMPARTMENT The collapse and loss of the facial fat compartments create the looks of enhancing skin laxity or significant creases around the nasolabial area, around the eye’s region, and jowl.
FACIAL SKIN AGING The skin is the cover or canvas of our face. The skin also aging as a result of internal and external factors too. Moreover, the repetitive dynamic muscle contractions from facial expression result in the presence of deep and shallow wrinkles over areas of contractions such as the around the eyes and around the mouth, forehead, and glabella. Photodamage and smoking increase the production of oxidative stress toward skin cells resulting in thinning of skin thickness, sun-damaged skin, and collagen break, leading to aging skin characteristic.
EXTERNAL FACTOR ASSOCIATES FACIAL AGING •Body mass index •Hormones •Alcohol consumption •Cigarette smoking •Unprotected sun exposure
AGING STEM CELLS AGING FACE (3)
One major reason to Brough up stem cells into cosmetic treatment is the effect of age on the stem cells themselves. Stem cells are not immune to the aging process, and their function is strictly regulated by their surrounding environment or called the stem cell niche. For example, studies have shown the blood stem cells have decreased functional potential with advanced age. Furthermore, aging is also related to the reduced ability of the immune system and an increased chance of white blood cell diseases, including leukemias. The functional reduction of aged stem cells come from a host of factors. Such as extrinsic factor, UV irradiation, genotoxic chemicals, and ionizing radiation, and intrinsic factor such as oxidative stress, telomere shortening. With age, stem cells were found to DNA damage, and depending on the type and extent of this damage, the lesions in stem cells have the ability to drive cells to age, death, or tumor production. Therefore, as aging has been related to a cell-intrinsic reduction in the regenerative ability of stem cells, reported of rejuvenation in aged individuals by transfer of a young stem cell becomes more interesting.
HOW CAN MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS (MSC) MAKE YOU LOOK YOUNGER?
Mesenchymal stem cells are stem cells that have the unique ability to turn into various types of cells in the body. They are universal donor cells, which can be utilized into any patient without risk and are thus perfectly suited for Cell Therapy.
For aesthetic rejuvenation treatment, Mesenchymal Stem Cells can act as the start of building blocks for skin and connective tissue, which include elastin and collagen, as well for fatty tissue and blood vessel. They can turn back your skin age give your baby face looks, help the skin become more resilient, feel smoother, and appear brighter.
STEM CELL THERAPY FOR SKIN MECHANISM OF ACTIONS (4)
Cell therapy is the injection of self or non-self stem cells to restore the viability of tissues. The mechanism of action of stem cell for skin such as •Self-renewal: Stem cells have the ability to self-renewal and turn into multiple types of cells that contribute to skin repair. •Paracrine effect: Stem cells can enhance the progress of wound healing. By producing the substance that cell needs for repair and regenerate such as various types of growth factors and cytokine. These studies reported that the potential of stem cells to adjust the tissue microenvironment by the production of soluble factors to the tissue repair process. •Immune system modulation: Stem cells can modulate the immune and inflammatory responses to enhance skin healing. The injection of mesenchymal stem cells on the surface of the skin decreases inflammatory cell and increase the formation of new vessels tissue this makes the underlying structure can reach more nutrient and substance needed for repair and regenerate. After skin tissue injury, Stem cells mobilize from the blood. These cells migrate to the site of injury and modulate the repair and rejuvenate at the cellular level. It has also been identified that mesenchymal stem cells secrete cytokine which inhibits inflammatory and modulates the immune response. Taken together, it has been demonstrated that stem cells contribute to skin repair by several of their properties, including cell differentiation, substance secretion, and immune modulation. Stem cell therapy is an attractive therapeutic tool for future skin treatment.
STEM CELL THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS
•Blemishes and freckles become less visible as we can see that infant has none of all these skins aging sign •Visible results start from 2-4 weeks and become outstanding within 2-3 months after stem cells therapy •Repeat treatment recommended every 1-3 years •Recovery time 1-3 days depending on skin type •Slows and reverses visible signs of aging •Revives skin cells, decrease fine lines and wrinkles •Return of natural moisture to the skin •Return of resilience and firmness to the skin
UMBILICAL CORD STEM CELLS THE BEST SOURCE OF MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS
Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) or umbilical cord blood stem cells (UB-MSCs) and Warton’s jelly (WJ-MSCs) were also used in dermatological disorders. These cell types have greater cell division and variety of cell transformation potential compared to mesenchymal stem cells from fat cells and Mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow.
MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS TREATMENT FOR SCAR
Two million mesenchymal stem cells were injected directly into the scar from open-chest surgery. Significant tissue regeneration and pain reduction were observed about 12 weeks after treatment start, cells were injected three times. In another research, mesenchymal stem cells originating from fat cells was analyzed as a cell source for the full-thickness wound repair. Compared to control, the stem cell treatment group resulted in a decrease of scar size and better color, quality, and pliability of skin. Mesenchymal stem cells also used for the treatment of facial scars. Self-extracted mesenchymal stem cells from fat cells in fibrin spray were used for therapy of acute and chronic poor healing wounds in 10 patients. In acute wounds, complete healing was reported 7–8 weeks after the treatment and within 16–20 weeks in participants with chronic wounds. Mesenchymal stem cells were also utilized for preventing skin graft contraction after transplantation in a patient with hypertrophic scars. Stem cells were injected into the scar. After a 2-year follow-up, the resulted in contraction decrease.
WOUND TREATMENT BY INTRAVENOUS STEM CELLS
After intravenous administration, mesenchymal stem cells migrate to the wound site and start the wound repair, which was confirmed on a mice trial. The results showed that such a link is a high potential method for soft tissue regeneration and repair.
STEM CELLS TREATMENT FOR SCAR TREATMENT MECHANISM
Generally, stem cells have been involved in the healing of wounds. A number of studies have shown the effectiveness of stem cells in promoting superior and faster-wound healing. The application of stem cells in wounds enhances the more effective uppermost skin layer repairing. Amniotic fluid origin stem cells have also been utilized in wound healing. Wound closure, angiogenesis, and uppermost skin layer repairing were faster in skin treated with the stem cells in comparison to those treated with fibrin collagen gel only. Moreover, their effect is from released important factors and not by direct interaction. These stem cells also were shown to increase vascular regenerate in the wounds along with the rate of skin cells repairing. Additionally, stem cells have the effect of activin signaling on the homing of stem cells to wound sites.
MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS TREATMENT FOR BURN SKIN
Burn wound repairing related to a series of complex processes. Burn injuries, especially serious ones, are proving to have traumatized effects on the patients. Stem cells have been recently utilized in this field to enhance the superior healing of the wounds. Not only have stem cells been shown to induce a faster and better healing process of the burn wounds, but also, they have reduced the inflammation levels with decrease scar fibrosis and progression. (5) Stem cells have a very promising capacity in the therapeutic of burn wounds; however, other therapeutic methods are being invented to improve the treatment. Stem cells are commonly derived either from the umbilical cord, bone marrow, skin, or v. Natesan and the team has even used a part of the burn wound itself as a source of stem cells for wound healing and regeneration. The dermal stem cells created in the study reduced wound contraction leading to better skin cell repairing. Conclusion, Stem cells enhance wound healing by a complex series of pathways that promote new blood vessels generates, collagen deposition, and new tissue formation. They alter cellular immune response by reducing the severity of the inflammatory reaction. This may reduce the risk of infection. Stem cells are important in the regeneration of cutaneous organs such as sweat, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands, which would improve aesthetic outcomes for patients. (6)
MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS TREATMENT FOR HAIR LOSS
Wharton's jelly is a gel-like material which is present inside the umbilical cord. It has become a good resource of stem cells because it is widely available, it is noninvasive and painless for the extraction process no risk to the donor. There is also no ethical issue, has immune privilege potential, and can grow and multiply easily.
Yoo and the team analyzed the effects of human mesenchymal stem cells on faster wound healing and the growth of hair follicles. Enriched mesenchymal stem cells were able to create new hair follicles. Growth factors may be added during the culture process, which increases hair follicle growth.
Moreover, the effects of umbilical cord stem cells to hair pulp tissue growth were examined. Cells of the outer sheath of the hair were used for incubation and infused into the skin. Accordingly, hair follicle development was observed.
In 2015, Li and the team. have reported a new type of stem cell from human umbilical cord blood which is cord blood-derived multipotent stem cell (CB-SC). Regarding the team, clinical data have shown that a single therapy was able to create balanced immune responses that allowed the regeneration of hair cells. Immunohistochemistry showed the structure of a “ring of growth factor-beta 1” surround hair follicles, leading to the restoration of immune balance in the hair follicles and the protection of newly created hair follicles.
Reference 1.Farkas, Jordan P. MD; Pessa, Joel E. MD; Hubbard, Bradley MD; Rohrich, Rod J. MD” The Science and Theory behind Facial Aging” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery – Global Open: April 2013, Volume 1 Issue 1 page 8-15 2.Maciej Nowacki, Tomasz Kloskowski, Katarzyna Pietkun,Maciej Zegarski,Marta Pokrywczyńska,” The use of stem cells in aesthetic dermatology and plastic surgery procedures. A compact review of experimental and clinical applications” Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2017 Dec; 34(6): 526–534. 3.Adrian McArdle, M. B, B.Ch., Kshemendra Senarath-Yapa, M.B.B.Chir., Graham G. Walmsley, B.S. 4.Wei Lu; Yong Jie Zhang; Yan Jin” Potential of Stem Cells for Skin Regeneration Following Burns” Expert Rev Dermatol. 2009;4(2):97-99. 5.Fadi Ghieh, Rosalyn Jurjus,Amir Ibrahim, Alice Gerges Geagea,Hisham Daouk “ The Use of Stem Cells in Burn Wound Healing: A Review” Review Article | Open Access Volume 2015 |Article ID 684084 | 9 pages 6.Eamon Francis, Laura Kearney, and James Clover “ The effects of stem cells on burn wounds: a review” Int J Burns Trauma. 2019; 9(1): 1–12.