The addictive substances destroy the growth and development of nervous tissue and undermine the function of nervous system stem cells. This factor was claimed to be one of the underlying process of behavioural changes in patients with addiction. As the damage of stem cells’ function has been showing to be the underlying principle of abnormal process called neuro
adaptations in the brain, which leads to tolerance and dependence on a substance.
The delivering of stem cell populations has shown effects for re-adjust of nerve cell in the brain and especially in the hippocampus part of the brain.
Our brain is a crucial organ that controls all motor and sensory actions, behavioral, and emotions. Each anatomical and physiological modulation in various brain centers, results in psychological, memory, and sensory-motor changes. Addictive drugs and alcohol such as amphetamines and opioid have been demonstrated to exert a great crash on brain, particularly on the hippocampus. The addictive substances destroy brain cells and undermine the function of brain stem cells in hippocampus part.
Each drug stimulant that can affect brain stem cells or their niche in the hippocampus could make a huge change in the memory and behavior such as depression, bipolar disease, schizophrenia and addiction.
The inflammation of brain cells is also Related with the repetitive use of addictive substance such as cocaine, opiates, marijuana, and methamphetamine.
Alcohol abuse can create a great deteriorating impact on the brain. Excessive use of alcohol results in progressive damage of brain cells, leads to abnormal cognitive functions such as memory loss and psychopathological problems.
Stem cells are cells with self-renewal and repairing ability. Available results from clinical research support the overall safety of cell therapy using stem cells. Moreover, stem cell therapy is the immunomodulatory effect of these cells. This characteristic is so useful in disorders with inflammatory components such as brain cells inflammation from addict substance.
Stem cells have been used in brain deteriorate problems such as Parkinson’s disease Alzheimer’s disease Stem cells have been turning into brain cells. Stem cells have also the potential to pass through blood brain barrier to the damage area of the brain.
Stem cells secretion multiple types of growth factors. These brain regenerative effects were accompanied by the improvement in memory and motor behavior. It has shown that stem cells increase new brain cells formation and also associated with brain cells protection through anti- cell death mechanisms.
Besides secreting growth factors and other important substance for cells, stem cells also produce micro-vesicles containing nucleus material, which are believed to control cell-to-cell communication which also regulate brain cells outgrowth.
Stem cells have shown therapeutic effects on the brain problems. A critical finding in mental problems like bipolar disorder, major depression, and schizophrenia. Stem cells improved new brain cells formation with safety.
1. Raheleh Rafaiee1, Naghmeh Ahmadiankia
Addiction Research Center, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran. 2. School of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran. 16 March 2018; Accepted 13 June 2018; Published 20 June 2018