Updated: Oct 8, 2020
The Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)
You can read more details about the different types of stem cells in our article “The Different Types of Stem Cells“
Cell therapy is the cell transplantation, through local or systemic delivery, of self or other person cells to restore the viability or function of defective tissues.
Medical conditions that may potentially be treated with Mesenchymal stem cells include:
(Stem cells for anti-aging)
Degenerative disease is a wide range of conditions that result from the wear and tear we all suffer over time; some examples are osteoarthritis, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, type 2 diabetes, muscular dystrophy, Parkinson’s disease etc.
Like the rest of our body, stem cells suffer the adverse effects of aging. Scientists believe that this aging of stem cells which causes a deterioration in their ability to regenerate, repairing, and replace damaged tissue, is one of the leading causes of degenerative disease.
Stem cell replacement therapy provides an effective way for the treatment of age-related diseases.
It is believed that the regenerative potential of these cells is due to their high proliferation and differentiation capabilities, paracrine activity, and immune privilege.
While most of the bodies stem cell populations remain active throughout our lives in organs deficient of stem cells, stem cell transplantation to replace cells is a promising therapeutic method for functional recovery. This means that stem cells can be used for cell replacement as a treatment intervention aimed at diminishing the effects of aging.
Traumatic spinal cord injury with stem cells.
The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) constitutes one of the most important and promising treatment approaches. Their favor, among the other sources and types of stem cells such as embryonic stem cells or IPCCs, increased because of their simplicity of isolation/preservation and their characteristic. The promotion of nerve cells generation or elongation by transplanted neuronal stem cells following damage was reported.
Stem cells treatment for cancer recovery.
Given their self-renewal and differentiation capacity, stem cells can be used to repair human tissues after chemotherapy. Transplanting HSCs is clinically utilized in many cases to enable lifelong blood cell system recovery after the treatment of cancer with high-dose radiation or chemotherapy. This treatment intends to re-establish bone marrow under marrow failure situation (such as aplastic anemia) and to treat congenital blood cell diseases and works by supplying stem cells that turn into a suitable type of blood cell. Transplantation and successful acceptance of only one HSC can reconstitute blood cells system in recipients.
Healthy stem cells derived can theoretically be utilized to repair tumor- or treatment-injured tissues. In regenerative medicine, various tissues can be produced using stem cells. Stem cell therapy may be useful in repairing or replacing cancer patient stem cells.
Stem cell stimulation improves stroke recovery.
Recent clinical trials of cell therapy have shown cell safety and some effectiveness in reducing after stroke disability. Cell therapy during the short period after stroke was related to stable clinical and imaging outcomes in the InveST and RECOVER studies, while the MASTERS studies shown good clinical effectiveness trends as same as those observed in mouse models.
Cell therapy during the stroke period resulted in improved clinical outcomes in both the Sanbio and PISCES studies. The clinical studies reviewed used a variety of different cell types, delivery techniques and delivery locations each delivered with a variable delay from the time of initial stroke event. Even with these differences in trial design, there were no reported cell-related serious adverse event effects.
There are many proposed mechanisms by which cell therapy might help improve recovery, which involves immune modulation, enhancement of blood vessel generation, nerve cell generation and production of growth factors and essential substances. Further exploration is needed to learn the specific effects of each type of cell therapy to develop the best combination of cell delivery technique, cell dosing, type of cells used, timing of transplantation, dead tissue area size and location of dead tissue that may benefit from further cell treatment for blood supply restriction type of stroke.
More information on stroke recovery is available from BMJ Health Journals
Stem cells for skin regeneration following burns.
Stem cell treatment can improve the quality of burn wound healing. A recent study suggests it will
reduce the formation of scars and re-establish the normal function of the skin and its appendages.
Stem cells have the ability of self-renewal and multi-potency. Adult stem cells can produce skin cells. Mesenchymal stem cells can turn into multiple skin cell types and provide wound repair. Labeled MSCs can be observed in the epidermis, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, blood vessels and skin layer in full-thickness wounds.
Stem cells treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis
Stem cell treatment might help decrease inflammation and increase the residence of healthy cells in the body. The present-day knowledge of stem cell treatment as a possible treatment for Rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis causes inflammation in the tissues between joints, which results in a loss of cartilage, the connective tissue that cushions the joints. Over time, cartilage loss can damage the joint and surrounding bone. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are types of stem cells that be able to develop into bone and cartilage. Synovial MSC therapy means injecting these stem cells directly into the tissues surrounding the damaged joints. Some studies show that Mesenchymal stem cells are also able to suppress the immune system and reduce the body's inflammatory reaction. This makes Mesenchymal stem cell treatment a promising treatment choice for autoimmune conditions such as Rheumatoid arthritis.
Regenerative therapies utilize stem cells for the regenerate of heart tissue have been widely used in preclinical and clinical trials during the past 16 years. Induction of new blood vessel synthesis to create new collateral vessels within an area with a lack of blood flow has been in evolution since the mid-1980s, soon after the first trial in human body reports on the blood vessel generation effect of recombinant fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Multiple factors significantly contribute the efficiency of stem cell treatment. Optimal delivery methods are essential for the precise delivery of stem cells to the damaged area of the heart muscle, settlement and differentiation. Among the different techniques, direct injection of cells into heart tissue still calling the most clinical attention.
Preclinical animal trials have shown that mesenchymal stem cells can be a promising new treatment for this problem. These findings have prompted experiments to start human clinical studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of sensory neuro hearing loss. The objective of the design systematic review is to examine the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells as a treatment for sensory neuro hearing loss in animal models.
Subretinal use of mesenchymal stem cells repaired degenerating retinas in study of retinal degeneration models in mice. An experimental trial showed that mouse mesenchymal stem cells acquired from culture activated Müller cell (a type of cell in the retina) differentiation and exerted a cell production effect by secreting growth factors. It was also reported in experimental studies that factors secreted from human mesenchymal stem cells prevent light-induced retinal injury. Studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells can turn into different retinal cell types. Huang et al. reported that mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into retinal pigment -like cells with share morphological characteristic.
Stem cells have the ability for self-renewal throughout unlimited replication, as same as the capacity to differentiate into any cell type within the body. The capacity to direct the fate of these cells to become a dopaminergic neuron(nerve cell produce dopamine which related to Parkinson’s pathology) possible therefore offers an unlimited number of cells that can be utilized for nerve cell grafting. Stem cell-based therapies are emerging as the most promising method for the development of an appropriate regenerative treatment that could be used in a considerable number of patients.
The systemic review analysis revealed that the intravenous delivery of mesenchymal stem cells is a better treatment approach for type 1 diabetes than other routes of stem cell treatment. The results of stem cell treatment for type 2 diabetic the average patient age with type two diabetic was 56 years. Stem cell therapy was performed in 11 studies [363 patients with type 2 diabetes]. Stem cell treatment improved the insulin daily necessity levels, as well as hemoglobin A1C, and had a positive effect on other measurable factors.
Stem cell-based technology has been bringing us a potentially promising method for treating kidney disease. The mechanism is the kidney protection potential of adult stem cell treatment in experimental models of acute and chronic kidney injury. From different mechanisms at the basis of stem cell-induced kidney repairing. Specifically, cell engraftment, merging into kidney structures, or stem cells producing essential substances for kidney cells.
The utilizing of stem cells for tissue regeneration has raised significant hope in a vast number of medical fields, including musculoskeletal disease. Stem cell treatment for osteoporosis can potentially decrease the chance of fractures and replace lost mineral density by either increasing the numbers or restoring the function of residual stem cells that can multiply and turn into bone-forming cells. Such osteoporosis treatment can be done by the introduction of non-bone marrow origin mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), typically obtained from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood tissue and fat.
Facial skin anti-aging
Adipose-derived stem cell [ADSC] and mesenchymal stem cell [MSC] as future anti-aging instruments to some magnitude have provided promising and efficient options in fighting skin and facial skin aging. Moreover, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells have exhibited a similar ability to repair and rejuvenate aged skin.
Stem cell therapy erectile dysfunction in diabetic men
The Mesenchymal stem cell is by far the most commonly used cell type in the field of urology and the most favorable method of stem cells delivery in erectile dysfunction therapy is injection stem cell into the shaft of the penis, given its ease of delivery and has proven effectiveness in both preclinical and clinical trials. The regenerative abilities of stem cells are likely achieved by the production of various growth factors into the bloodstream and/or migration of these factors to the major pelvic nerve in addition to cell contact, essential substance signaling system and cellular transformation. The first reported clinical studies of stem cell treatment in diabetic men with erectile dysfunction showed a consistent improvement in penile hardness after a single injection of umbilical cord blood stem cells. While penile hardness was stabled for more than six months. In a different study on the use of stem cells in men with erectile dysfunction after prostate surgery, You showed that injection of bone marrow mononuclear cells seems to be a safe and effective treatment for erectile dysfunction for six months. However, the decline in erectile function over time suggests a need to assess for repeated injections.
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